Subject: [fem-women2000 526] ICCWOMEN NEWS [FWD]
From: lalamaziwa <>
Date: Wed, 27 Sep 2000 13:14:49 +0900
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 From: "Women's Caucus for Gender Justice" <>
 Date: Tue, 26 Sep 2000 23:45:04 -0400

May 2000

Volume I / Issue III

Welcome to the third issue of ICC WOMEN, the electronic newsletter compiled
by the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice.  

This issue comes to you after the Caucus made its final major intervention
in the ICC Prepcom.  Gender-specific negotiations ended in June 2000 with
the completion of the Prepcom on the Elements Annex and Rules of Procedure
and Evidence.  The Caucus will continue to monitor the US proposal and
oppose any further efforts aimed at weakening the court but will maintain a
minimal presence at the next Prepcom which will focus on technical matters.
 We thank all of you, especially the lobbying participants, for your
support and contribution through our three years of participation in the
ICC Prepcoms.

Since July, the Caucus has embarked on its long-term outreach, education
and advocacy programs on a full-time basis.  Through these programs the
Caucus plans help develop greater awareness among women of the ICC and its
gender achievements.  The Caucus also continues to take part in the
ratification campaign put forward by CICC (NGO Coalition for an
International Criminal Court).  The Caucus held a regional workshop in
August, updated its website throughout the summer to develop regional links
and access to information, and continues to expand on  outreach efforts and
educational materials.  

We are happy to announce these and other developments as well as related
news in this newsletter.  We look forward to your continued support and any
comments or suggestions you have regarding this newsletter.



I. 	ICC Update
II.	Caucus Activities and Regional Interventions
III.	Network News & Announcements
IV.	International Legal Developments
V.	Vacancies at the Ad Hoc Tribunals
VI.	Annex - Definitions of Crimes of Sexual and Gender Violence in the ICC


At the last ICC Prepcom, held from 6-30 June 2000 at UN Headquarters in New
York, the preparatory commission finalized negotiations on the Rules of
Procedure and Evidence and an Elements Annex, which contains definitions of
the crimes within the Court's jurisdiction. 

The adoption of these texts by the Preparatory Commission was mandated by
the Final Act and the Rome Statute of the ICC adopted in July 1998. To
date, 112 countries have signed the statute and 20 countries have ratified
it.  These countries include: Senegal, Trinidad and Tobago, Fiji, Ghana,
Norway, Italy and San Marino, Beliz, Tajikistan, Iceland, Venezuela,
France, Belgium, Canada, Mali, Lesotho, New Zealand, Botswana, Sierra Leon
and Luxembourg.  It is anticipated that there will be 2 to 3 more prepcoms
in the coming months to draft a relationship agreement between the ICC and
the United Nations and to address budget issues for the Court. The next
Prepcom will take place from 27 November-8 December 2000.

The Preparatory Commission had been engaged in negotiating the two texts
since February 1999. Many of the issues identified by the Women's Caucus as
priority gender issues at the first prepcom were resolved only in the last
days of the June session. The definitions of the individual crimes of
sexual and gender violence are annexed to this newsletter as are related
rules of evidence in cases of sexual violence.

With few exceptions, the Women's Caucus believes the definitions of crimes
of sexual and gender violence in the ICC represent a progressive move away
>from traditional discriminatory definitions in national laws. With respect
to issues of victim and witness participation and protection, delegates
gave effect to the broad mandates around victim participation and
protection in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
 Contraversial Issues

1.	Chapeau

One of the most controversial issues at the session involved the threshold
for crimes against humanity in the Elements Annex. The threshold language
is referred to in the prepcom as the "chapeau" because it is the opening
paragraph to the section which contains language applicable to all of the
crimes against humanity. The Women's Caucus viewed the crimes against
humanity chapeau as a pivotal gender issue as it  would set the boundaries
for state or not-state actor culpability with respect to all crimes against
humanity. The language being negotiated required a level of active
involvement by states or non-state actors in the commission of the crimes
which the Caucus and many other NGO's believed was too high. Such a
threshold did not correspond to the realities or nature of the crimes,
which must be committed on a widespread or systematic basis to begin with.

The Women's Caucus was particularly concerned about the issue because the
problematic language was the result of compromises based on a proposal by
11 Arab countries seeking to exclude crimes of sexual and gender violence
when committed within the family or as a part of religious or cultural
concern. Their proposal also applied to the crimes of imprisonment and

This issue encountered some of the most strenuous debate at the Prepcom.
After difficult and long negotiations characterized by an intense
unwillingness to compromise on the part of Egypt and China and at different
times by the UAE and Syria, the Prepcom adopted text which still requires
"active promotion or encouragement" on the part of states or organizations.
 However, this phrase accompanied by a footnote which clarifies that a
policy requires "action" on the part of states or organizations but that in
"exceptional circumstances,"  "deliberate failure" to take action can
constitute a policy. 

2. U.S. Proposal

Another highly controversial issue that arose at the Prepcom involved
efforts by the U.S. to achieve an exemption for its nationals and an
increased role for the Security Council through the Rules of Procedure and
Evidence. The U.S. had a two-part proposal which required that delegations
make room in the rules of procedure and evidence to set the stage for the
second, and most critical, part of its proposal. By the end of the session,
it was clear the U.S. would be allowed some maneuvering room. The Women's
Caucus, and some other NGO's, were strongly opposed to allowing the U.S. to
receive any concessions, however innocuous they seem, which would make it
possible for them to push the most controversial part of its proposal.

In the end, the U.S. was able to achieve its objectives and managed to keep
its efforts alive for the next Prepcom. The most vocal opposition to the
U.S. efforts came from certain African countries, most notably Cote
d'Ivoire, who nearly brought the debates to a stand-off before bowing to
the pressure from the bureau as well as EU countries. 

Since the Prepcom, the U.S. has been intensively pressuring African
countries to back its proposal. The head of the U.S. delegation, Ambassador
at-large for War  Crimes, David Scheffer traveled to South Africa and
several other African countries recently to garner support for the
proposal.  In addition to pushing its proposal to explicitly provide
exemptions for U.S. nationals, the U.S. is also pursuing bilateral
agreements with other countries to ensure that those countries do not
extradite U.S. nationals to the ICC.

The issue of the U.S.'s role in the negotiations will likely come to a head
at the next prepcom when its proposal will be officially put on the table.
The struggle will be to ensure that the integrity and independence of the
ICC are not undermined and that the U.S. does not receive more special
treatment in the area of international justice than it already has.

While there were numerous gains on gender issues throughout these
negotiations which are reflected in the way the crimes are defined and in
the rules of procedure and evidence, the Women's Caucus was seriously
disapointed by the outcome of the chapeau issue and the concession to the
U.S. The Caucus expressed a lack of support for the provision in a one-page
flyer on the last day of the session. In addition, many Caucus members,
joined by other local acitivists and NGO's, wore t-shirts on 2 key days at
the UN which demanded "No Compromise on Justice"and "Gender Justice Now."

For more details, see <>.


* Beijing +5 and the ICC *

At the General Assembly Special Session for the five-year review of the
Fourth World Conference on Women, the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice
worked to raise awareness of the ICC and its important gender provisions
among the women and groups present at the UN. The Caucus and others also
worked to ensure language about the ICC and ratification in the Outcomes

The entire session was characterized by major stonewalling by conservative
states and the Holy See on the issues of family, reproductive health rights
and sexual orientation. The same obstructionist tactics were also used
during negiotations on language in the ICC and calls for ratification. At
different points during the negotiations, various aspects of the ICC were
blatantly misrepresented. 

The ICC's definition of gender was also misrepresented by one delegate who
quoted only the portion of the definition pertaining to the "the two sexes,
male and female" and omitted the important reference to "within the context
of society". Another delegate argued that the ICC had no relevance to
women's human rights and therefore should not be discussed in that context.

At one point the Holy See attempted to use the Rome Statute's list of
sexual and gender violence crimes to limit the recognition of other crimes
against women. This highlighted the need for women's groups to approach the
statute's list of crimes, and their definitions, as bare minimums from
which further developments should proceed. 

In the end, the Outcomes Document did include a statement "encouraging"
states to ratify the ICC statute, though it fell short of an outright call
or commitment to ratify. Additionally, there was an acknowledgement of some
aspects of the ICC as examples of positive developments, though there was
no acknowledgement of the ICC itself as a fulfillmentof the objectives

Among the interventions that took place by Women's Caucus participants
during the Special Session was an intervention by Indai Sajor, of ASCENT in
the Philippines, who participated in a "Dialogue between the Armed Conflict
Caucus, Security Council Members and UN Department Heads," on 6 June 2000,
which was organized by the Armed Conflict Caucus. Indai, who is among those
working to get accountability and reparations from the Japanese government
for the "comfort women," spoke about the historic failure to address
violence against women in armed conflict and the importance of the ICC.

Vahida Nainar, executive director of the Women's Caucus, participated in
two panels held during the session. The first panel entitled "Mobilizing
Women: Responses to Armed Conflict" was held on 6 June 2000 and was
coordinated by the Gender and Development Programme, Malaysia, and the
Women's Caucus. Vahida spoke about the ICC and how certain provisions were
included as a direct response to some of the experiences of women in armed

 On 6 June, Vahida also participated in a panel entitled "Faces of
Extremism: Countering Right Wing Attacks on the Human Rights of Women
Worldwide," which was coordinated by the Feminist Majority Foundation,
based in the U.S. Vahida spoke on the issue of extremist tendencies and the
propagation of discriminatory laws in some communities and the myth of
homogeneity between Muslim communities. Other speakers included Cherreka
Montgomery, director of Global Outreach, Feminist Majority Foundation,
Sajida Hayat, Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA),
Ramesh Sepehrrad, president, National Committee of Women for Democratic
Iran, and Widney Brown, advocacy director, of  the Women's Division of
Human Rights Watch.

On 8 June, The Women's Caucus, in collaboration with the New York Coalition
on 'Comfort Women' Issues, hosted a panel entitled, "After 50 Years:
International Responses to the 'Comfort Women' Issue." Speakers included,
Rhonda Copelon, director of the International Women's Human Rights Law
Clinic, Yayori Matsui, Chairperson, of Violence Against Women in War
Network - Japan," Dai Sil Kim-Gibson, director of "Broken Silence", Indai
Sajor, executive director of Malaya Lolas and ASCENT. The panel was
moderated by John H. Kim, president of the New York Coalition on Comfort
Women Issues.

* Regional Meeting on ICC *


The Women's Caucus, in collaboration with the Law, Race and Gender Research
Unit of the University of Cape Town in South Africa, organized a workshop
entitled, "Gender Justice and the International Criminal Court" from 24-26
August 2000. The workshop was intended to raise awareness about the ICC and
its relevance for women, build support for the Court and ratification
campaigns and build capacity among women's groups to utilize the ICC in
ways that can assist domestic law reform efforts. 

The workshop brought together participants from several African countries,
including Nigeria, Ghana, Botswana, Rwanda, Burundi, Cameroon, Uganda and
>from different places in South Africa. The facilitators included Rashida
Manjoo, the local coordinator in Cape Town, Betty Murungi of Kenya, Sume
Epie-Eyoh of Cameroon, Vahida Nainar, and Pam Spees of the Women's Caucus. 

The workshop also featured several special guests including Francoise
Ngendahayo, the Advisor on Gender and Assistance to Victims at the
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; Prof. Daniel Nsereko of
Botswana; Medard Rwelamira, head of South Africa's delegation to the ICC
preparatory commission meetings; Ms. C. Gillwald, Deputy Minister of
Justice, Professor H. Corder, dean of the law faculty at the University of
Cape Town; Shanthi Dairiam of IWRAW-Asia Pacific and Bronwyn Pithey of
National Commission on Violence Against Women in South Africa.

South Asia Regional - ICC & Gender Conference

The Women in Media Collective is coordinating a regional conference on the
ICC and Gender which will be held in Colombo, Sri Lanka from October 11-14.
The conference will be the first awareness raising effort and will be
followed by national conferences in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka
and Nepal (?). 

Central America

The Universidad de las Regiones Autonomas de la Costa Caribe Nicaraguense
(URACCAN), is hosting a 3-day conference on the ICC and Gender entitled
"The International Criminal Court and the Rights of Women" in collaboration
with the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice from 2-4 October 2000 in Managua
Nicaragua. The workshop will bring together lawyers, judges and activists
in Nicaragua. The faciliators include Pam Spees, Alexa Solorzano of the
Women's Caucus, Jose Guevarra of Mexico and Vahida Nainar representing the

The International Institute for Cooperation Between Peoples, based in El
Salvador, will host a series of meetings on the ICC and Gender. The
meetings will consist of a roundtable discussion with local NGO's and law
students and faculty on the ICC and Gender, a meeting with various
legislators as well as media.  Pam Spees and Alexa Solorzano will represent
the Caucus. 

* Caucus  Projects*


Women's Caucus website has been updated over the summer to reflect the new
phase of Caucus work beyond advocacy in the establishment of the ICC.  The
website is now catered to serve as an educational tool for developing a
higher capacity among women's and human rights advocates from around the
world in using the provisions of the ICC, as well as other international
instruments for women's human rights advocacy.  The site has been expanded
with links to women's human rights work from all regions in the globe.
Articles and lists of bibliographies have been added.  It also contains
updates on gender-related legal developments on national and regional
levels as well as information about UN initiatives and developments in Ad
Hoc Tribunals related to women's and/or human rights.  Meghan Barp, who is
completing a master's program in women's studies, worked as a summer intern
in developing this site with the Project Coordinator.  The website is at
<>.  We would appreciate any feedback and the
submission of other related information to add to this site.


The Women's Caucus in association with WITNESS is producing a video about
the ICC and its significance to women.  This video, which is in the final
stages of production, will be used as a part of the training on the ICC and
international/humanitarian laws.  

Since fall 1999, the video team together with office members and WITNESS
shot interviews with women's human rights advocates, collected audio and
video footage and has been working to develop the script.  A 7-minute
preliminary piece of this video was presented during the ICC Prepcom in
June to the Women's Caucus lobbying participats to receive their feedback.
Margaret Crehan, the director of the video, and Monica Angeles, a friend of
the Women's Caucus who assisted as a Spanish  interpreter, traveled to
Chiapas and worked with Guadalupe Cardenas and Marta Figeroa from Grupo de
Mujeres de San Crist=ea=82al Las Casas, a women's group working on sexual
violence issues, as well as survivors of violence, as they conducted
video-interviews and on-site shooting for the video.  Shabana Azmi, the
premier Indian actress and a human rights advocate, has agreed to narrate
the video.  The editing will start at the end of September and the video
will be completed in mid-October.  

Women's Caucus will launch this video at a premiere to be held on December
2, 2000 in New York.  Women's/human rights advocates, government
representatives to the ICC Prepcom, media, and UN officials, will be in
attendance screening on.  The video will also be shown at the Tokyo
Tribunal during December 7-13, 2000 in Tokyo, Japan.  More information will
be posted prior to the launch at <>.

The Women's Caucus has developed a series of informational materials on
different aspects of gender and the ICC which can be obtained from the
Caucus website.  

* Public Hearing on Crimes From On-Going Wars and Conflict Regions *

Women's Caucus has taken on the responsibility of coordinating a one-day
public hearing on December 11, 2000 on crimes against women in recent
conflict situations.  This event is a part of the Tokyo Tribunal (see
below) and will demonstrate that the crimes committed against the former
'comfort women' during WWII are not any different from the crimes
perpetrated against women today.  The public hearing will comprise of
testimonies of victims and survivors of conflicts in different regions of
the globe such as Guatemala, Colombia, Chile, Chiapas, Sierra Leone,
Nigeria, Rwanda, Great Lakes region, former Yugoslavia, Bangladesh, Sri
Lanka, Kashmir, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Burma, East Timor, Papua New
Guinea/Pacific region, Fiji, Kashmir, Afghanistan, Algeria, Palestine and
the US military bases in Korea, Okinawa and Vieques.  Themes that will be
presented include conflicts/violations resulting from Extremism,
conflicts/violations resulting from militarism, resource-based
conflicts/violations, and violations during post-conflict and the lasting
impacts in the event of non-resolution of conflicts on peace and

The public hearing has the following objectives:
1.	to demonstrate the continuation / escalation of crimes against women in
wars and conflict situations since WWII and thereby link it to the
violations suffered by the former "comfort women" (Tokyo Tribunal).
2.	to compile different types of violations that women / people suffer in
conflict situations and look at the ways in which women have dealt with /
coped with conflicts and the violation they suffered
3.	to highlight the economic impact of wars and conflicts on women 
4.	to highlight the importance of women's participation in peace and
reconstruction process
5.	to highlight the dire need for international justice and accountability
mechanisms such as the International Criminal Court
6.	to strengthen international pressure in seeking state and individual
accountability for gender-based war crimes, crimes against humanity, and
genocide; and
7.	To build strong national, regional, intra-regional, and international
networking, capacities and movements supporting women's issues and calling
for an end of the impunity of wartime crimes and sexual violence committed
against women.

The first meeting of the International Advisory Committee (IAC) for the
public hearing took place on June 8, 2000 during the Beijing special
session in New York.  The IAC developed a concept paper and guidelines for
testimonies.  Testimonies that are currently being collected will be
discussed at the next IAC meeting on October 2, 2000.  Many participants
and friends of the Women's Caucus are taking part in organizing this event
as International Advisory Committee members, as Co-sponsors, and in
assisting with presenting testimonies at the hearing.  The United Nations
Special Rapporteur Rhadhika Coomaraswamy will participate as well.  More
information can be found at <>.

 * Toyko Tribunal 2000 *

The preparation for the Women's International War Crimes Tribunal on
Japan's Military sexual Slavery (Tokyo Tribunal) has entered its final
stage.  The International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
has officially endorsed the Tribunal.  Judge Gabriel Kirk McDonald, former
President of ICTY, has agreed to preside as a member of a panel of judges.
Patricia Viseur-Sellers, jurist at ICTY specializing in gender, Tina
Dologopol of Australia and Nina Jilani from Pakistan will be the chief
prosecutors.  Organizing members, prosecutors and legal advisor attended an
international organizing committee (IOC) meeting during June 5-10, 2000 in
the Philippines.  Indai Sajor, co-convenor of the Tribunal facilitated the
meeting, and Rhonda Copelon, the director of the International Women's
Human Rights Law Clinic participated as the legal advisor.  The Charter was
adopted at this meeting and issues related to prosecution were discussed.
Another and final IOC meeting will take place during September 15-18 in
Taiwan at which indictments that national prosecutors prepared that were
submitted to the chief prosecutors will be discussed and finalized.  A
meeting of judges with chief prosecutors will take place in early October
in New York.  

The Caucus will contact the foreign ministries from around the world, whom
we have  established relationships with through the ICC Prepcom to inform
them of this event and  advocate for the comfort women and take all
measures to facilitate the event.  The Caucus will also host a seminar on
the ICC in Tokyo during the occasion of the Tribunal.

An estimated total of 500 people comprised of tribunal and public hearing
organizers, judges, prosecutors, testifiers, media personnels, and
observers will participate in the Tribunal from outside of Japan of which
250 will be from victimized countries.  Another 500 seats will be filled by
the Japanese audience.  For information on attendance, contact VAWW-NET
Japan at, Tel/fax: +81-3-5337-4088.

Organizers are determined to allow as many survivors as possible, all of
whom are advanced in age, to attend the tribunal and are making the best
efforts to raise funds.  Contribution to the following account will be
1126-02089-3, Far East Bank and Trust Company, Tomas Morato Branch, 220 
Tomas Morato Avenue, Quezon City, Philippines;  
or ACCOUNT NAME - VAWW-NET Japan, ACCOUNT NO. - 0001-164-1605200, 
Daiichikangyo Bank, Shibuyagashiguchi Branch, 2-15-1 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku,
Tokyo 150-0002, Japan.  

For more information, access the web at < > or
<>; or contact VAWW-NET Japan (see above), The
Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan
(, or ASCENT at


* Invitation to the Annual Meeting of Women in Black *
Brussels 31th August 2000
Dear friends,
Since 1992 we have established the International Network of Women in Black
against War.  We have had our annual meeting every summer, during the month
of August with the purpose of discussing how acting against wars and any
kind of nationalism. One year ago we met in Ulcinj.  Unfortunately, because
of reasons you already know, this year it has been impossible to organise
our meeting.  As the International Women March in Europe will end in
Brussels on the 14th of October 2000, we are convinced that it could be an
important occasion to organise a meeting in the same period.
   Therefore, I invite you to join us at a seminar we are organising on the
13th of October at the European Parliament - Brussels.  Our aim will be
consulting each other on the actual situation of the network and future
undertakings.  Unfortunately the initiative will not be completely funded
and we can contribute just for the invitations of some women coming from
Balkan area, Israel and Palestine. There will be women from Kurdistan as
well.  Please inform us about your willingness to participate.  I will be
at your complete disposal for any information.

Best regards
Luisa Morgantini.

* Call to support Women's Human Rights Defender in Kenya *
Kenyan branch of the International Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA) 
The Kenyan branch of the International Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA)
which had been helping an alleged rape victim bring charges against a
Minister of State in the Office of the President, has faced an attempted
break-in by police. They have also received anonymous death threats. These
followed the killing of a priest who was a witness in this case and Amnesty
International fears that the lawyers may also be in grave danger.

One of the people instrumental in bringing this case to public attention,
Father John Kaiser, a Catholic priest and an outspoken advocate for human
rights in Kenya, was murdered on August 24. Amnesty International believes
that his killing may have been politically motivated and has sought
assurances that the investigation into his death is thorough, independent
and impartial. Since Father Kaiser's death the girl allegedly raped by the
Minister of State has dropped the charges against him.

The day after Father Kaiser was murdered, five armed police officers tried
to force their way into the FIDA office in Nairobi, but were kept out by
the security guards at the gates.  Over the last two weeks three FIDA staff
have received anonymous calls from someone who threatens to kill them
because of their work.  This attempt at forced entry is part of a pattern
of arrests, harassment and intimidation of human rights organizations by
the Kenyan authorities. Amnesty International has repeatedly raised these
concerns with the authorities. 

Please send telegrams/telexes/faxes/express/airmail letters in English or
your own language:

- condemning the attempt by police to force their way into the FIDA offices
on 25 August, and their attempt to intimidate FIDA staff;
- urging the authorities to conduct a thorough, impartial and prompt
investigation into this police misconduct, and the telephone death threats
received by FIDA staff, and to ensure that those responsible are brought to
- seeking assurances that human rights activists in Kenya will be protected
>from violence, threats and intimidation. 

- Philemon Abong'o, Commissioner of Police, Police HQ, PO Box 30083, Nairob=
Kenya; Telegrams: Police Commissioner Abong'o, Nairobi, Kenya, Faxes: + 254
2 330 495, Salutation: Dear Commissioner
- President Daniel arap Moi, Office of the President, PO Box 30501,
Nairobi, Kenya
Telegrams: President Moi, Nairobi, Kenya, Telex: 22003 FOREIGN ROB, 22796
FOREIGN RB, Faxes: + 254 2 337 340 (if no tone, please try later),
Salutation: Your Excellency
- Mr Amos Wako, Attorney General, PO Box 40112, Nairobi, Kenya; Telegrams:
Attorney General Wako, Nairobi, Kenya; Faxes: + 254 2 315 105.; Salutation:
Dear Attorney General

- International Federation of Women Lawyers - Kenya branch (FIDA) 
PO Box 46324, Nairobi, Kenya; Faxes: + 254 2 716840, Email:

and to diplomatic representatives of Kenya accredited to your country.

Check with the International Secretariat, or your section office, if
sending appeals after 19 October 2000.

* Final Statement by the International Women's Summit to Redefine Security*
Naha, Okinawa, Japan, June 22-25, 2000 

On the eve of the annual meeting of the G-8 leaders, to be held in Okinawa,
July 21-23, 2000, ninety-one members of the East Asia-US Women's Network
Against Militarism, coming from the Philippines, Puerto Rico, South Korea,
Japan, U.S., mainland Japan, and Okinawa, convened the International
Women's Summit to Redefine Security. We are activists, teachers, students,
researchers, elected officials, survivors of physical, sexual, and
emotional violence; we are daughters, mothers, and wives.  The purpose of
this meeting was to challenge the principle of "national security" on which
the economic policies of the G-8 are based.  These economic policies can
never achieve genuine security.  Rather, they generate gross insecurity for
most peoples of the world and devastate the natural environment.  These
economic policies are inextricably linked to increasing militarization
throughout the world.  Militaries reap enormous profits for multinational
corporations and stockholders through the development, production, and sale
of weapons of destruction.  Moreover, militaries maintain control of local
populations and repress those who oppose the fundamental principles on
which the world economic system is based.  The current economic system
depends on deep-seated attitudes and relationships characterized by greed,
fear, domination, and the objectification of "others" expressed through
racism, sexism, imperialism, and the desire to control the physical
environment.  Vested interests, routine ways of thinking, prejudice,
ignorance, and inertia also play their part in maintaining entrenched
systems of economic, social, and political inequality. 
This Women's Summit builds on the earlier meetings of the East Asia-US
Women's Network in Naha, Okinawa (1997) and Washington, DC (1998) which
sought to build a strong international network of women who oppose
militarism and are working to define an agenda for true global security and
peace. Throughout our four-day gathering, we affirmed that genuine security
is based on the following four key tenets:

- the environment in which we live must be able to sustain human and
natural life
- people's basic survival needs for food, clothing, shelter, health care,
and education must be met;
- people's fundamental human dignity and respect for cultural identities
must be honored; and
- people and the natural environment must be protected from avoidable harm.

By these standards, there are no truly secure societies in the world and
none that are fully committed to achieving genuine security. Yet many
detailed alternative proposals to creating and maintaining true security
have been developed by international peace and human rights organizations.
These include specific proposals for non-violent conflict resolution,
early-warning procedures, mediation services, and the restoration and
re-building of devastated lands and communities. Development for genuine
security must be economically and environmentally sustainable.

Participants in the International Women's Summit shared our experiences of
the impact of this militarized economy on our lives.  We see
demilitarization as a process of incremental steps by which governments
must reduce military operations, expenditures, and cultures while
simultaneously expanding non-military alternatives.  Toward our goal of
achieving true security, we issue the following demands to the leaders of
G-8 nations and to the leaders of nations that we represent:

- Stop the bombing on Vieques, Puerto Rico; cease the war in Mindanao,
Philippines; end the Korean War and support efforts to reunify Korea; stop
plans for new or replacement bases in Okinawa, e.g. the proposed heliport
at Henoko.  These immediate steps would be the basis for ultimate removal
of military presence from these communities and return the land to local
- Revise the unequal Status of Forces Agreements (SOFA) and Visiting Forces
Agreement (VFA), a first step toward the total removal of US bases from
Okinawa, mainland Japan, Korea, and the Philippines.
- Oppose the new US-Japan Defense Guidelines that require Japan to provide
facilities and personnel to support US military activities in the region.
The Guidelines constitute a violation of Article 9 of the Japanese
- Ratify the International Criminal Court, which will provide a mechanism
for ordinary people to take action against military crimes.
- Compensate host countries and individual victims and survivors of
military toxic waste and of violent acts against women and children that
are results of the US military presence. Specifically:
	1.adopt the Host Country Bill of Rights as ratified in the International
Grassroots Summit for 	Military Toxics (October 1999, Washington, DC);
	2.provide full accountability and compensation for violence against women
that includes violence 	against women in host communities, sexual
harassment of women in the military, and domestic 	violence in military
	3. Take responsibility for social, economic, and political development of
Amerasian children by 	the US and governments of host countries. 
- Immediately decrease military spending by developing specific plans and
timelines for overall demilitarization.  Specifically:
	1. eliminate Japan's "Sympathy Budget" that supports US presence in Japan;
	2. commit to ongoing cumulative reduction of military spending-for
example, 5% per year) and 	reallocate these resources toward compensation
and redress  for victims and survivors of military 	operations
	3. develop alternatives to military conflict resolution
	4.provide housing, food, shelter, health care, and education, which are
basic survival needs
- Stop new weapons design development, and testing; end sales of weapons.
- The perspectives, leadership and issues of women be central to all
matters of peace and security, including planning and decision-making of
base closures and conversion.
- Women's organizations must be included at all levels of peace
negotiations and national reconstruction.  A pressing case is the dialogues
beginning between North and South Korea.
- Conversion of military systems and military land must promote and reflect
programs and projects that meet local community needs and are culturally

We conclude that military security is a contradiction in terms.  The
present militarized international security system is maintained at the
expense of the natural environment, the economic and social needs of many
people, and fundamental human rights.  This is a price we refuse to pay.  

* Redress for former Comfort Women * 
Action Alert Against Recent Moves by Asian Women's Fund

Asian Women's Fund was established by the Japanese government in 1995, as a
response to calls for redress to the survivors of Japan's sexual slavery
>from World War II.  This fund that the government finally offered to
provide was not state compensation that the survivors and activists had
demanded.  It was funds taken out of Japanese citizens' donation that was
offered in the name of contribution for past labor.  This invaded the
survivors' sense of dignity.  This offset advocacy against the Asian
Women's Fund throughout victimized countries and the international
community.  Korean and Taiwanese governments decided to provide funds and
living support that are equal in amount with the Asian Women's Fund in
order to support the survivors in their own countries who are aging mostly
in poverty.  The Fund has also created divisions and pain among survivors
and activists in victimized countries between those who supported and
accepted versus those who have taken a stand against it.  Although the
Japanese government acknowledged its moral responsibility, it continues to
deny its legal responsibility as of today.    

Recently, the Asian Women's Fund appointed as its president the former
Prime Minister Tomiichi Murakami, who was the first person outside of the
conservative government that ruled for 50 years since WWII to become the
prime minister.  The Korean Council for Women Drafted for Military Sexual
Slavery by Japan and VAWW-Net Japan submitted an objection letter to Mr.

In Asian Women's Fund News issued on March 22, 2000, Haruki Wada mentions
in his report on the Philippines the name of Indai Sajor, who is the
Executive Committee member of the Women's Caucus and a leading Filipino
activist on the Comfort Women issue as well as the co-convenors of the
Tokyo Tribunal.  His reference to Indai leaves an impression as if Indai
has promised a support to the Asian Women's Fund.  Indai expressed in
response that this is highly problematic, as she did not even meet with
Wada or another Asian Women's Fund representative Ms. Matsuda who is
working on the Philippines.  Indai has held a press conference in Tokyo
objecting to the Asian Women's Fund when it was established and has since
then advocated firmly for proper state compensation.

VAWW-Net Japan calls upon friends from around the world to send a letter to
Mr. Tomiichi Murakami at the following to urge him to reject the position
and to abolish the Funds: Fax: +81-3-3580-0691, Address: 3-2-2 Chiyo-cho,
Ooita-shi 870-0033, Japan.  For more information, contact VAWW-Net Japan at


U.S. jury awards $745 million to Bosnian rape victims				

New York, U.S. - In August, a federal jury consisting of nine women and one
man awarded $745 million in damages to the 11 plaintiffs in the case of
Kadic, et al v. Karadzic, held in U.S. federal district court.

The 11  plaintiffs, consisting of women who were raped or otherwise
sexually assaulted, brought the case against Radovan Karadzic, a Serbian
psychiatrist and former Bosnian Serb president. The plaintiffs alleged
Karadzic was a major architect of the genocidal violence that ravaged the
Balkans, in which systematic sexual violence was a critical part of the

Karadzic failed to appear at the trial, personally or through counsel,
which resulted in an automatic finding of liability. The jury then was
charged with fixing a monetary amount after listening to the plaintiff's
accounts of the nature and scope of the crimes committed against them. 

The case was brought under the Torture Victims Protection Act and the Alien
Tort Claims Act, a statute dating back to 1789 which allows non-U.S.
citizens to sue in U.S. courts for violations of international law.

The case is one of two such cases against Karadzic by victims of Serb
violence during the period of ethnic cleansing. The second case began on
September 11, also in federal district court in New York.

ICTY Appeals Chamber Upholds Furundzija Judgement

The Hague,  Netherlands - On 21 July 2000, the Appeals Chamber of the
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia upheld the trial
chamber's judgement in the case of Prosecutor v. Furundzija, the first case
at the ICTY which was based exclusively on acts of sexual violence. 

One of the grounds upon which defence counsel appealed was that the
presiding judge, Florence Mumba, a woman, should have been disqualified
alleging she would be biased in the case. The defense also appealed the
sentence, claiming the 10-year term (a 10-year and 8-year sentence to run
concurrently) was excessive. 

The Appeals Chamber held that Judge Mumba was "subjectively free of bias"
and that there was nothing in the "surrounding circumstances which
objectively gave rise to an appearance of bias." The Appeals Chamber also
held that the sentence was not excessive.


Office of the Prosecutor, Legal Advisory Section
Vacancy 00-L-ITR-00X169-E-HG, Legal Officer, (Comparative Law), level P-3
(Deadline for application: 7 October 2000)

Functions: Under the supervision of the Senior Legal Advisor, the incumbent
of the post prepares opinions related to issues of comparative criminal
law, evidence and procedure. Drafts briefs and submissions on comparative
law issues. Work with the Investigation and Prosecution Sections to develop
standards and procedures for acquisition and presentation of evidence.
Develops a common approach with the Investigation and Prosecution Sections
to procedural issues and recommend necessary changes.
Qualifications: Advanced university degree in law; specialisation at
post-graduate level in comparative law or equivalent practical experience.
Qualified practitioner or judge in civil law system. 6 years legal
experience practising or teaching law with a minimum of 2 years practising
criminal law. Experience practising or teaching comparative criminal law,
including evidentiary law desirable.

Languages: Fluency in English or French. Working knowledge of other United
Nations official languages desirable.
Indicative Minimum Gross Annual US$ 65,044
Remuneration (Including Post Adjustment)*

Registry, Office of the CAO
Vacancy 00-X-ITR-00X168-E-HG, Staff Welfare Officer, level P-4
(Deadline for application: 7 October 2000)

Functions: Under broad guidance of the Chief of Administration, the
incumbent of the post is responsible for developing counselling and support
programmes for staff, staff groups and associated parties, who as a result
of their exposure to and involvement in extreme conditions associated with
trials and their preparation, are at risk of stress related disorders. This
includes the identification of such parties and stress factors and the
creation of appropriate measures internal/external, to address such
situations, taking into account the legal implications. The Staff Welfare
Officer will implement such programmes e.g. by providing counselling,
undertaking team-building activities as well as proposing measures to
reduce stress in the workplace. The incumbent will also contribute to the
development of policies and procedures governing employee relations and
security measures, e.g. staff/relations, gender and cross cultural
management issues, contingency procedures etc., and make recommendations on
possible solutions.

Qualifications: Advanced university degree in Psychology or related
discipline, supplemented by studies/courses in counselling or related
field. At least 10 years experience in developing and implementing
counselling and support programmes. Cultural sensitivity and international
experience a definite requirement, and familiarity with an international
organisation environment an asset.

Languages: Fluency in English required. Fluency in French highly desirable,
as is a knowledge of Serbo-Croatian.
Indicative Minimum Gross Annual US$ 79,362
Remuneration (Including Post Adjustment)*

Registry, Conference and Language Services Section
Vacancy 00-T-ITR-00X170-E-HG, Conference Interpreter, level P-3
(Deadline for application: 7 October 2000)
Functions: The incumbent services hearings of court proceedings or plenary
sessions of the Judges by providing simultaneous interpretation into one or
more working languages of the Tribunal, very often without the benefit of
prepared speeches read by participants; aims at a high standard of
accuracy, consistency and faithfulness to spirit, style, intonation and
nuances of the original. He/she prepares thoroughly for every hearing by
reading the available material such as motions, briefs and decisions. May
be given other assignments by Chief of Section, such as to be on duty in
the evening or weekend or participate in the work of the terminology group.

Qualifications: University degree - preferably from a recognised
interpretation school. Demonstrated ability to do simultaneous
interpretation from and into the working languages of the Tribunal; ability
to assimilate an immense range of terminology and subjects from various
fields (primarily legal, but also military, medical, technical); speed,
accuracy, nerves and stamina to interpret not only abstruse legal arguments
but also emotionally charged testimonies of victims of torture, rape and
other atrocities; ability to negotiate and persuade. Must have at least
four years experience.

Languages: A thorough command of two or three of the working languages of
the Tribunal, one being the mother tongue. The working languages are:
French, English and Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian.
Indicative Minimum Gross Annual US$ 65,044
Remuneration (Including Post Adjustment)*

Conditions of service
Staff are offered a highly competitive salary (which is not subject to
Dutch income taxes) with a yearly increment and if entitled, a dependency
allowance. Furthermore, we offer an extensive medical and pension plan, 30
days of annual leave and 10 days official holidays. 
Staff members are International Civil Servants and are expected to be
discrete and loyal as regards to the interests of the United Nations
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. 
Appointments are mostly issued for an initial period of three months. This
trial period provides both the staff member and the organization an
opportunity to determine whether the appointment was mutually satisfactory.
Thereafter a renewal will be considered. However, in view of the temporary
nature of the Tribunal, contracts are issued for a maximum period of one
year, with the possibility of renewal.
All General Service staff are considered as local recruits and are not
entitled to any expatriate benefits. The conditions of service of ICTY
staff are governed by the United Nations Staff Rules and Regulations.
There are different levels in the General Service category, recognising
increasing levels of complexity. Staff are generally hired at a level that
relates to their qualifications and experience. 
In accordance with United Nations Staff Rules and Regulations staff must
undergo a medical exam and must be medically cleared by the United Nations
Medical Service in New York within the first six months of service, prior
to extension.
* General Service posts 
The ICTY is interested in recruiting qualified female and male candidates
for the following positions:
~ Communications Assistant    ~ Computer related positions
~ Secretary    ~ Finance Assistant    ~ Security and Safety Officer
We are also looking to expand our roster of candidates in the field of
Building and Technical Maintenance and Electronic Data Processing.
Job requirements and qualifications at the General Service Level
The job requirements depend on the level and complexity of the position but
must minimally include:
1. High school diploma, supplemented by courses related to the job function=

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